श्रीराम जय राम जय जय राम, শ্ৰীৰাংজয়ৰাংজয়জয়ৰাং, শ্রীরাম জয় রাম জয় জয় রাম , શ્રીરામ જય રામ જયજય રામ, ಶ್ರೀರಾಮಜಯರಾಮಜಯಜಯರಾಮ, ശ്രിറാം ജയ് റാം ജയ്‌ ജയ് റാം, శ్రీరాంజయరాంజయజయరాం

Ramayan – Lesson 4

Lesson 4

Shri Rama & Laxmana with Sage Vishwamitra

The wedding of Parvati

The killing of Tratika

The undisturbed sacrifice


King Dasharatha welcomed Brahmarshi Vishwamitra with reverence. He offered him the best seat and treated him with the utmost hospitality. He said with all cordiality, great sage, your arrival has rendered as pure.

Vishwamitra was pleased with the king humility. He made kind enquiries about the welfare of his subjects:Is your land blessed with plenty? Are your subjects happy? Dasharatha answered with folded hands.Great Sage, with your blessings the land is blessed with plenty. The people are righteous. We are happy, free from the threat of enemies. We rejoice that you have come. Revered sire, if there is something you desire me to do, I beg of you, tell me. However difficult it might be, I shall do it.

Dasharatha words made Vishwamitra very happy. He had come to seek the king help. He answered,King, your words have gladdened me. I have come here with a great objective. I want you to fulfil it.

Dasharatha, I have undertaken a great sacrifice. But I have not been able to complete it successfully. Every time I begin the rites, two rakshasas, Maricha and Subahu, pour meat and blood into the fire and defile it. And so my endeavour is fruitless. I am capable of overcoming the two rakshasas by cursing them. But I am bound by the vow of the sacrifice and cannot have recourse to a curse. So I have come to you with a request. Be pleased to send your son, Rama with me. He will kill the rakshasas and enable me to continue the sacrifice. Do not doubt if Rama, who is very young, can kill the rakshasas. He is formidable in strength. He and only he can kill the rakshasas. So send him with me without any hesitation.

Dasharatha was deeply troubled when Vishwamitra made the request. Rama was his darling son, the pupil of his eyes. The sight of Rama enabled him to forget that he was ageing. He could not bear to part from Rama. The very thought that he had to send Rama with Vishwamitra, and that, too to kill rakshasas made him shudder.

With folded hands Dasharatha pleaded with the sage:Great Sage, Rama is yet of tender years. He has never been away from the palace. How can he move about in the forest? How can he, yet so small, fight the rakshasas? Sending him with you serves no purpose. Instead, I shall accompany you and crush the rakshasas. I shall ensure that your sacrifice is completed without any obstruction.

Vishwamitra would not agree. He said, You do not know Ramaprowess. That is why you speak in this strain. There is no reason why you should be worried about Rama. Send him with me, and let him win the glory of vanquishing the rakshasas. But yet Dasharatha could not make up his mind to send Rama. He said, Revered sage, forgive me. Ask me anything for you except that I should send Rama and I shall obey. but I cannot send Rama.Vishwamitra was displeased. His eyes grew red. He thundered:King, you promised to do whatever I sought. But now you are offering lame excuses. This is not right. You have broken your promise.

The royal priest, Vashista, now intervened.King, honour your pledge. Should you break your word, for ever you will be disgraced. Send Rama with Sage Vishwamitra. What does it matter that he has no experience of fighting? As long as he is with Vishwamitra no harm can befall him from the rakshasas. Do not imagine that Vishwamitra is an ordinary person like any other. He is the very embodiment of Dharma  the righteousness. He is also matchless in prowess. No one can equal him in the knowledge of weapons. Killing the rakshasas is no difficult task for him. He can reduce them to ashes in no time. But he desires that the glory of destroying the rakshasas should go to your son and so he has come to you. Send Rama with him without hesitationâ.

Vashista words soothed the troubled king. He now understood Vishwamitra purpose. He sought the forgiveness of the sage. He then sent for Rama and Lakshmana and told them why Vishwamitra had called at the court. Rama and Lakshmana listened to their father with a smile. Dasharatha said, Both of you accompany the sage. They said,Yes, Maharaja, we shall do so. They bowed to Vashista and Vishwamitra, to Dasharatha and other elders in the court. They went to the queens apartments and bowed to them and secured their blessings. They then followed Vishwamitra, carrying their bows and arrows.

The three went on foot. Vishwamitra went on narrating stories so that the lads might not find the journey tedious. He told them the history of every city and town and river and mountain on the way.This was a new experience to Rama and Lakshmana. They listened to the sages narrative with interest and zest. They would ask him questions and clear their doubts. Spending their time thus fruitfully they came to the southern bank of the Sarayu, having walked about a yojana and a half.

Vishwamitra asked Rama to sit near him and said,Prince, perform aachamana (ritualistic sipping of water) with the water of this holy river. I shall initiate you into two mantras(sacred verses) – Bala and Atibala, which are the mother of all knowledge. They will keep you fresh and free from fatigue.You will not feel hunger or thirst. Rakshasas will not be able to approach you even when you are asleep. No one can excel you in physical prowess. If you repeat these manthras every day you will acquire fame and success. Rama obeyed the sage, bathed in the river and performed aachamana. He was initiated into the use of the two manthras, Bala and Atibala. His strength and effulgence doubled at once.

That night they spent on the banks of Sarayu. They made beds of straw and husks for themselves,and lay down. The thought never occurred to Rama and Lakshmana that they were princes who had been accustomed to sleeping on soft beds but now had to lie down on beds of straw. Myriads of stars twinkled in the sky above. The gurgling waters of the Sarayu sang lullabies.They listened to the fascinating stories which Vishwamitra narrated in a soft tone. Gradually they fell asleep.

The night ended and day dawned. Vishwamitra woke up the boys who were in peaceful sleep. He said in a sweet voice, Rama, son of Kausalya, it is dawn. Wake up, and perform the rituals of the morning. They boys left their beds at once, bathed, offered arghya (sacred water) to the Sun god and repeated the Gayathri Mantra. After completing the morning prayers they touched the feet of Vishwamitra.

The three then continued their journey. On the way they came to a big confluence of rivers. The Sarayu and the Ganga meet there. The place was dotted with holy hermitages. These aroused the curiosity of Rama and Laksmana. They said,Holy sire, what hermitages are these? Who dwells in them? Tell us about the greatness of the place. Vishwamitra began the story of the place.

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Once Parashiva came hither with his ganas the followers. The serenity of the spot pleased him immensely. Sitting down in a state of deep contemplation, he began his tapas here.

A rakshasa called Tarakasura had then become a curse to the world. He had performed tapas in the Pariyata Mountain regions and had secured from Lord Brahma a boon that no god who had been born by then would be able to kill him. He had three sons, each of whom had built a pura- city – for himself. And so they used to be referred as Tripuras also. Intoxicated by the boon he had secured Tarakasura became the scourge of the world. Unable to suffer his harassment the gods approached Lord Brahma.

Brahma told them, None of the gods of the present can kill Tarakasura. A new god has to be born.Himawantha is the king of mountains. His wife is Manorama. Their daughter is Parvathi. Parvathi has made up her mind once and for all that she will marry only Lord Shiva. She is performing tapas in the Himalayas to please him. Lord Shiva himself is immersed in meditation, in the Ganga and Sarayu region. If the two are married a son will be born to them and that god will destroy Tarakasura. Therefore, endeavour to bring about the marriage of Shiva and Parvathi.

The gods said to themselves,How can we awaken Lord Shiva who is absorbed in meditation? Who can persuade him to marry Parvathi? Then, Manmatha, the God of Love, offered to help them. He had a bow and arrows made of flowers. His arrow would awaken love in any one whom it hit. So Manmatha is also called Kama. He said to the gods, Go to the Himalayas and talk to Parvathi.Persuade her to hover near Shiva. I shall then shoot my floral arrow, and make him fall in love with her.

The gods liked the plan. But they were also worried, thinking What if Shiva is angry with Manmatha?But Manmatha said, ‘It does not matter even if Shiva is displeased and destroys me. The gods should be free from the threat of Tarakasura. So let us follow my plan. The gods were pleased with his magnanimous spirit. They could see no other way out, and so they came to the Himalayas, as he had advised.

The gods met Parvathi and explained their plan. They sought her co-operation. She was yearning to marry Shiva and gladly consented. They all came to the region where Shiva had forgotten himself in spiritual pursuit. It was then the season of spring. Trees and plants were rich in blossom. The sweet songs of cuckoos filled the air. Peacocks danced joyously, their feathers outspread. The Goddess of Nature had put on a scene that would enthrall any one.

There was Shiva on a rock, lost in meditation. He looked so grand that none of the gods dared to stand before him. They all hid themselves behind trees. Parvathi stood before him and began to worship him.

Manmatha waited for the right moment and then fixed his arrows of flowers and shot them. The arrows struck Shiva. He became a veritable live volcano in his fury, for his meditation had been disturbed. He had an eye in his forehead. Hence Shiva is known as Phalanetra. Because he has three eyes he is also called Thrinetra. He used to open his third eye when he was enraged. The blaze would burn any one before him at once.

Manmatha arrows had disturbed Shiva tapas and he opened the eye in his forehead. The gods who were watching from behind trees were terrified. At once they cried out in one voice,Lord, withhold your wrath. Save Manmatha. But already it was too late. Lightning darted from Shiva eye and, as the gods watched aghast, Manmatha was just a heap of ashes. Shiva resumed his tapas. He did not even throw a glance at Parvathi. The gods were deeply disappointed and in dismay.

Parvathi was distressed that Shiva had completely ignored her. But she also felt that she had not chosen the right approach to achieve her ardent desire. She realized that she could win over a god only through sacrifice and tapas.I shall win over Shiva by my devotion, she decided; and she began a most rigorous tapas.

It was a prolonged ordeal and Parvathi became emaciated. But she was undaunted. Only the air was her food, and her mind was unswervingly with her Lord Shiva. She went on repeating but one mantra – Om Namaha Shivaya. With every breath was heard the name of Shiva. She saw only Shiva and nothing but Shiva. Her ears were filled with the name of Shiva. Shiva filled her mind. And thus, as far as she was concerned, Shiva pervaded the entire universe. Her tapas  grew more and more rigorous day by day. The flames of her tapas began to envelope the entire world.

Shiva decided that he should not test Parvathi any further. He appeared before Parvathi and said,Parvathi, I am pleased with your tapas. I am yours. Parvathi was thrilled; she touched his feet.

Led by Lord Brahma, all gods arrived there. Himavantha and Manorama, too, came there. The wedding of Shiva and Parvathi was celebrated with great grandeur.

Then came Rathi, the wife of Manmatha, to meet Shiva. Having lost her husband she was in great anguish. She fell at the feet of Shiva and said,My Lord, recall my husband to life. Shiva was moved by her distress. Manmatha had sacrificed his life for the good of the world. Shiva felt that it was his duty to undo the injustice done to Rathi.

Shiva said, Do not grieve, Rathi. I will ensure that your husband will be with you once again. His body has been burnt and has become ashes. It cannot, therefore, be restored to him. But he will be with you for ever, though without a body; on the one day when I burnt him he will sport with you in his body. Since he has lost his limbs and organs -angas, he will be known as Ananga. And he will ever be the God of Love. This was some comfort to Rathi; the other gods were pleased.

Kamadahana is the burning of Kama or Manmatha by Shiva; the day is celebrated as Kama Poornima, or the Full Moon Day of Kama.

Later a son was born to Shiva and Parvathi. He was given the name Subramanya. He had all the qualities of the gods even as kumara – a boy , and so came to be called Kumaraswamy. The place where Parvathi Devi gave birth to him is known as Kumara Parvatha.

The goddesses Krithikadevis were appointed to tend Kumaraswamy. So Kuamara is also known as Karthikeya. The Krithikadevis were six in number. Kumara wished to be breastfed by all six simultaneously. So he acquired six faces, and thus came to be known as Shanmuka. (one having six faces). He is also called Skandha. He was later to encounter Tarakasura in a blood-chilling duel and kill

him and establish peace in heaven.The gods made this formidable hero the commander of their forces.

After narrating this story Vishwamitra said,This land where Manmatha lost his body or angas has come to be known as Angadesha. This is the sacred region where Lord Ishwara himself performed tapas. Even now his disciples are engaged in tapas here. Let us spend the night in this holy hermitage near the sacred confluence. By then the news had spread that the great Vishwamitra had arrived. And so all the inhabitants flocked to see him. They bowed to his feet. They extended the warmest hospitality to the guests. The travellers spent the night there.

Next morning the three woke up and completed the rituals of the morning early. They approached the bank of the Ganga. The residents had got a lovely boat ready for them. They again treated them hospitably and bade farewell.

The boat moved slowly on the waters and came to the middle of the river. There the waves collided and set up roar. Rama asked,Great Sire, how is that the clash of the waves makes such a noise?Vishwamitra answered, ‘Rama, the Sarayu joins the Ganga here. This is the sound of two great rivers meeting. Long ago Lord Brahma willed that there should be a lake in Kailasa. At once a lake was formed. The lake which was crated in the manas“ the mind- of Lord Brahma came to be known as Manasa Sarovara. The waters of the lake overflowed, and so a river was born. That was river Sarayu. It surrounds Ayodhya as it flows. The mighty river which flows in your kingdom was created by Lord Brahma himself. Here the Ganga and Sarayu meet. Bow to this spot. Rama and Lakshmana bowed in reverence.

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The boat touched the southern bank of the Ganga. Rama and Lakshmana alighted with Vishwamitra and continued their journey. They came to a dense forest. Darkness reigned supreme even during the day there. Ferocious wild animals stalked the region striking terror into the hearts of even the bravest. But Rama and Lakshmana were undaunted. Rama said to Vishwamitra,Great Sage, this forest is a fearful spectacle. Wherever one turns one sees only lions, tigers, wild bears and elephants. What forest is this that has such gigantic trees as the kaggali, the mathi and the bilwa?

Vishwamitra replied,Rama once upon a time there were two big kingdoms here, Malada and Kurusha. A yakshi came here and began to indulge in wild plunder. She was called Tataki. She was the daughter of a yaksha, Sukethu by name and wife of Sunda another yaksha. She is very wicked. She has two sons-Maricha and Subahu. They are very cruel. The mother and her two sons have laid waste the two kingdoms-Malada and Kurusha. Unable to suffer the harassment of Tataki, the people fled. The kingdoms were utterly helpless. The region was deserted. Finally it turned into this forest,people say. Tataki is still here. You should kill her. And then you can face her sons, Maricha and Subahu who keep obstructing my sacrifice.

Rama said to Vishwamitra,Great Sage, however wicked Tataki might be, she is a woman. Is it not sinful to kill a woman?’ Vishwamitra answered, If the wicked, people whoever they may be, do not correct themselves, suffer. Crimes multiply and sufferings too increase. It is a sin to ignore such a state of affairs. Long ago, in the Krita Yuga, Manthara, the daughter of Virochana, plotted to kill the Earth goddess. Lord Indra came to know this and killed the wicked woman without hesitation. Similarly, when Khyathi, the wife of Sage Brighu and the mother of Sukracharya, tried do wipe out Indra, Vishnu killed her. So killing Tataki is not sinful. Destroy her without any compunction.

Rama listened to Vishwamitra words. He was convinced. Besides, his father had instructed him to obey the Maharshi. So he said to himself, My duty is to obey the sage implicitly. He raised his bow and pulled the string once. The forest echoed and re-echoed the sound. The beasts of the forest trembled and birds flew round and round the trees screeching. The forest which a moment before,was immersed in silence, was now filled with noise and din.

The sound of Rama bow string reached Tataki ears, too. And she wondered. She was also furious. ‘Who dares provoke me? she roared and raced to where Rama was. Rama saw her monstrous form, the body of a rakshasi. He was not in the least frightened. He said to Laksmana,Let us first cut off her ears and nose and teach her a lesson. Tataki advanced towards Rama roaring like thunder. She raised blinding dust around him, rained stones on him and guffawed. Rama took his bow in his hand. He halted the stones with his arrows. He then approached her. He cut off her arms. Lakshmana cut off her ears and nose. Tataki then began to use her magical powers. She hid herself behind a tree and began to send forth a variety of arrows. Rama overcame all of them. But there seemed to be no end to the battle at all.

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Vishwamitra then said,Rama, the sun is setting. With darkness rakshasas grow stronger. It will then be very difficult to kill them. So, kill Tataki at once. Using the shabhdavedi Rama discovered where she was and shot an arrow.Shabhdavedi is shooting an arrow at an invisible object, merely following the sound. Rama arrow pierced Tataki chest and it burst. She fell down with a terrifying cry.

Devendra and the other gods had been watching the conflict from above. They came down and praised the courage and strength of Rama and Lakshmana. They blessed the boys saying,You brought victory to righteousness. The world has been set free from torment. May good fortune follow you. Vishwamitra was naturally very happy. He embraced the boys affectionately. He said,Let us spend the night here and go to our ashram tomorrow. They spent the night there.

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Day dawned. Rama and Lakshmana completed the rituals of the morning and stood before Vishwamitra. The sage smiled happily and said, You two have fulfilled my desire. I am very happy. I shall teach you all the mantras  (Special weapons controlled by sacred verses). With these weapons you can vanquish any one. You will never taste defeat in a battle. You will overcome the wicked and win fame all over the world. He taught them the use of all the mantras he had acquired by his tapas.

The mantras enable a man to master the Vayavyastra, the Brahmastra, the Indrastra, the Varunastra, and the Agneyastra. With the Vayavyastra an enemy can be driven about in a storm.The Varunastra pours torrential rains on an enemy. The Agneyastra pours fire over an enemy. The Brahmastra and the Indrastra produce tremendous power. Thus the weapons possess different kinds of powers. Each weapon has a deity as master. When a bowman fixes a particular arrow and recites the verse sacred to the particular deity, the deity enters it. It can then be used against the enemy.

When Vishwamitra initiated Rama into the use of these mantras all the controlling deities arrived and stood before him. Rama made obeisance to them. He then said to them, Revered gods, we are not engaged in any conflict now. And therefore stay where you are for the present. When the need arises we shall pray to you and invoke your help. The gods agreed and departed. Vishwamitra taught the princes the use of these weapons and also how to recall them. For example, when Varunastra is used it pours rain on the enemy; when it is recalled it stops the rain and returns to the bowman. Rama and Lakshmana learnt all this.

As they continued their journey, they saw a huge mountain before them. Rama pointed it out to Vishwamitra and said,Great Sage, the dense forest, at the foot of yonder mountain is delightful.Birds of many kinds are singing delectably. It is so serene that it must be an ashram. Is that your hermitage? Do the rakshasas who seek to obstruct your tapas come hither? Where are they? I beg of you, let me see them.

Vishwamitra replied,Rama, I will answer your questions one by one. Yes, just as you inferred there stands my hermitage. Once upon a time Lord Vishnu himself performed tapas here and attained his purpose. Because Lord Vishnu himself attained Siddhi- his object – here the ashram came to be known as Siddhashram.

At the time Vishnu was engaged in tapas here, Bali, a king of daityas, ruled over the world. He was the son of Virochana and the grandson of Prahlada. Bali was very powerful. He had overcome Devendra and the marudganas. Once he began a sacrifice. Then gods like Agni approached Vishnu,who was engaged in tapas here. They prayed to him, ‘Lord, king Bali has already won heaven, the earth and the lower world, and has become the lord of even the gods. He has now embarked on another sacrifice. If he completes it successfully, we, the gods, will be condemned to eternal slavery under him. We pray to you, somehow you must overcome him. Vishnu listened to them and was convinced that the sacrifice had to be arrested.

At this very time, Bhagavan Kashyapabrahma was engaged in tapas to propitiate Vishnu. Kashyapa was the son of sage Marichi. He was second only to Brahma in the act of creation. He yearned to have Vishnu for his son. Vishnu saw this as the right opportunity to be born on the earth and prevent the completion of Balis sacrifice. And so he responded to Kashyapa prayer and was born as his son. This son was Vamana; the word means a short person.

Vamana came to where Bali was engaged in his sacrifice. It was a great sacrifice and was to take several years. And during this period, Bali would deny nothing to any suppliant. He would give away whatever any one sought. Vamana came to Bali. The king was pleased with the radiance of the boy face. Respectfully he said, Sire, what do you seek? Command me. Vamana replied, ‘King, grant me as much land as measures three times my foot. Bali answered,Very well. Measure so much land and take it.

The short Vamana at once shot to a great height. He grew so tall that he touched the earth and the sky. One step covered the lower world; the second covered the earth; and the third covered heaven.And this meant that Bali had given away all the three worlds to Vamana. Vishnu set free the gods whom Bali had imprisoned. He gave Indra the three worlds he had won. Thus, this is the place where Vishnu himself once lived. I live here now. This is where I perform the sacrifice. The two rakshasas, Maricha and Subahu, come here and obstruct the sacrifice. You two must destroy them,enable me to complete the sacrifice successfully and protect righteousness. With these words Vishwamitra guided them into the ashrama.

The residents of the ashrama learnt that Vishwamitra had arrived with Rama and Lakshmana. They were delighted and raced to meet them. They welcomed them and made obeisance to Vishwamitra.They greeted Rama and Lakshmana affectionately. Their affection doubled when they heard how the boys had killed Tataki. Rama said to sage Vishwamitra,Revered Sire, take the oath of consecration today itself. May you achieve your purpose so that the name of Siddhashrama becomes justified! Vishwamitra was pleased and consecrated himself to the mission of sacrifice.

Rama and Lakshmana kept awake the entire night. As soon as day broke they completed the rituals of the morning. They then touched the feet of Vishwamitra and began to keep watch, armed with their bows and arrows. They asked the disciples of the sage,Whence do the rakshasas come here? Is there a definite point of time when they appear? The disciples answered, The sacrifice takes seven days. Sage Vishwamitra has taken a vow of silence. For six days he will not talk to any one. The rakshasas travel in the air. There is no knowing when they will arrive. It is therefore, best for you to be ever vigilant.

Rama and Lakshamana remained alert for six days, day and night, and protected the ashrama.Vishwamitra and the other ritwajas were engaged in the sacrifice. The rituals were meticulously observed. The sacrifice neared the end. Suddenly the altar of the sacrificial fire flared up, as if it was a sign of the approaching terror. Even as they watched, black clouds gathered in the sky and it grew pitch dark. Maricha and Subahu had launched their attack. They began to rain blood on the sacrificial altar from the skies.

Rama looked up. Maricha and Subahu were hastening towards him. Rama was enraged. He first shot hundreds of arrows and set up a veritable canopy above the platform on which the sacrificial altar stood. He ensured that not a single drop of blood touched the altar. He then shot the Manavastra to overcome Maricha. The moment it touched Maricha, he lost consciousness and was carried away in a storm. Finally he fell into the sea hundreds of yojanas away. He sank and rose and sank again, and the water entered his body all along. At last the waves flung him on the shore. Agneyastra felled and killed Subahu.

The assembled rishis were very happy that Maricha and Subahu could no longer harass them. They praised Rama in many ways. Then Vishwamitra completed the sacrifice without a hitch. He said,‘Rama, I have accomplished my purpose. You have fulfilled the desire of your father. I am truly delighted, and embraced him. Rama and Lakshmana too were supremely happy. They were happy that they were able to ensure the completion of the sacrifice. They were also proud that they had fulfilled the instruction of their father. The day was spent in enthusiastic rejoicing.

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Examination on Lesson – 4

Choose answers to all the questions . All the best !!

Q1. What did the Sage Vishwamitra want from King Dasaratha ?

Ans: a)A lot of wealth to perform sacrifice b)King Dasaratha to come to forest to protect him c)a place for his Hermitage in King Dasaratha’s kingdom d)Shri Ram to come with him to the forest to kill Rakshasas

Q2. What was the effect of the first two Mantras that Sage Vishawamitra taught Shri Rama ?

Ans: a)To conquer fatigue, thirst, and hunger b)To pour torrential rains on enemy c)To pour fire over enemies d)To create a storm

Q3. What was the name of the son of Lord Shiva and Parvathi Devi ?

Ans: a)Kamadeva b) Indra c) Kartikeya d) Manmatha

Q4. Why did Shri Rama kill Rakshasi Tratika even though she was a woman ?

Ans: a)Because he did not like her b) Because she was wicked,committing crimes and sins and did not want to correct herself c)Because she ruled forest d)Because she did not obey him

Q5. What was the name of Sage Vishwamitra’s hermitage ?

Ans: a)Angadesha b)Himalaya c)Kaushumbhi d) Siddhashrama

Q6.Who were the Rakashas who were disturbing Sage Vishwamitra’s sacrifices?

Ans: a)Tratika b)Ravana c)Tarakasur d) Maricha & Subahu

Q7. Which main Rakashas was killed in the attack of Shri Rama ?

Ans: a)Tarakasur b) Maricha c)Subahu d)Bali

Correct Answers below

Examination 4 –

Q.1 Ans (d),

Q.2 Ans (a),

Q.3 Ans (c),

Q.4 Ans (b),

Q.5 Ans (d),

Q.6 Ans (d),

Q.7 Ans (c),